Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Anova Hypothesis Testing Paper Essay Example Anova Hypothesis Testing Paper Essay Anova Hypothesis Testing Paper Essay ANOVA Hypothesis Testing Paper RES/342 July 5, 2011 University of Phoenix ANOVA Hypothesis Testing Paper According to Payscale. com an individual with a high school education entering the work force will earn less than an individual with the same level of education who has worked longer in that particular field (Harrison, 2010). Team A has selected data from the Wages and Wage Earners data set and will be using the analysis of variance, also known as ANOVA, to compare the mean of age groups 18 63 which were broken down into four age groups to compare the average salary of each age group and will determine the accuracy of PayscaleÃ¢â¬â¢s claim. In this paper we discuss our research question and the hypothesis and show how we concluded the selected hypothesis. Research Question and Hypothesis Statement Is there a difference in earned wages for workers with a 12th grade education based on the age of the worker? At a five percent level of significance (? ), the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s null hypothesis (H0) is that the mean scores are the same for the four groups 18-25, 26-33, 36-44, and 46-53. The alternate hypothesis (H1) is that at least one mean is different. These hypotheses are simply illustrated as: H0: ? roup 1 = ? group 2 = ? group 3 = ? group 4, H1: At least one mean is different. Five Steps Hypothesis Testing and Results of F Test Team A conducted the following steps to test their hypothesis. Step 1 Ã¢â¬â The null and alternate hypotheses: H0: ? group 1 = ? group 2 = ? group 3 = ? group 4 H1: At least one mean is different Step 2 Ã¢â¬â Select the level of significance: ? = . 05 Step 3 Ã¢â¬âIdentify test statistic: Use the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ distribution because this is an ANOVA test Step 4 Ã¢â¬â Formulate the decision rule Reject the null hypothesis if F-calculated is greater than 2. 85 (F-critical) Step # 5 Ã¢â¬â Calculate the test statistic, arrive at a decision, and state a conclusion: Degrees of freedom in the numerator: df= c-1= 4-1= 3 Degrees of freedom in the denominator: df = n-c = 43-4 = 39 Decision is to retain the null hypothesis. Conclusion is that a difference cannot be proven between wages of workers with a 12th grade education based upon age. p-value = 0. 086 Excel Output: Anova: Single Factor | | | | | | |SUMMARY | | | | | | | |Groups |Count |Sum |Average |Variance | | | |Group 1 |9 |165739 |18415. 44 |75696297 | | | |Group 2 |15 |349791 |23319. |75244077 | | | |Group 3 |9 |249868 |27763. 11 |1. 03E+08 | | | |Group 4 |10 |306802 |30680. 2 |2. 28E+08 | | | |ANOVA | | | | | | | |Source of Variation |SS |df |MS |F |P-value |F critical | |Between Groups |8. 4E+08 |3 |2. 75E+08 |2. 358418 |0. 086439 |2. 845068 | |Within Groups |4. 54E+09 |39 |1. 16E+08 | | | | |Total |5. 36E+09 |42 |Ã |Ã |Ã |Ã | | | | | | | | | Raw Data and Charts Wages and Wage Earners 2005 Data Set Yearly |Group 1 |Group 2 |Group 3 |Group 4 | |Wages | | | | | | |$11,186. 00 |$11,451. 00 |$18,121. 00 |$9,879. 00 | | |$20,852. 00 |$29,191. 00 |$26,614. 00 |$49,898. 0 | | |$14,476. 00 |$41,780. 00 |$33,411. 00 |$20,852. 00 | | |$16,667. 00 |$13,312. 00 |$22,485. 00 |$32,235. 00 | | |$15,234. 00 |$15,957. 00 |$21,994. 00 |$50,171. 00 | | |$39,888. 00 |$25,166. 00 |$28,440. 0 |$31,702. 00 | | |$13,162. 00 |$30,308. 00 |$50,187. 00 |$36,178. 00 | | |$20,793. 00 |$21,716. 00 |$31,799. 00 |$12,285. 00 | | |$13,481. 00 |$28,219. 00 |$16,817. 00 |$45,976. 00 | | | |$31,691. 0 | |$17,626. 00 | | | |$17,690. 00 | | | | | |$16,796. 00 | | | | | |$32,094. 00 | | | | | |$15,193. 0 | | | | | |$19,227. 00 | | | References Harrison, H. (2010). The Average Salary of High School Graduates. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from ehow. com/facts_5232664_average-salary-high-school-graduates. html [pic] Reject H0 Do not reject H0 Ã ± =. 05 F = 2. 85 H0 ? =. 05 F = 2. 85
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Boxer Rebellion Timeline in China At the turn of the 20th century, intense social pressure due to increasing foreign influence in Qing China led to an upsurge of participation in the Righteous Harmony Society Movement (Yihetuan), called the Boxers by foreign observers. From their base in drought-ravaged northern China, the Boxers spread across the country, attacking foreign missionaries, diplomats, and traders, as well as Chinese Christian converts. By the time it ended, the Boxer Rebellion had claimed almost 50,000 lives. Background to the Boxer Rebellion 1807: First Protestant Christian missionary arrives in China from the London Missionary Society.1835-36: Daoguang Emperor expels missionaries for distributing Christian books.1839-42: First Opium War, Britain imposes an unequal treaty on China and takes Hong Kong.1842: Treaty of Nanjing provides extraterritorial rights to all foreigners in China - they are no longer subject to Chinese law.The 1840s: Western Christian missionaries flood into China.1850-64: Christian convert Hong Xiuquan leads to bloody Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty.1856-60: Second Opium War; Britain and France defeat China and impose harsh Treaties of Tientsin.1894-95: First Sino-Japanese War, former tributary Japan defeats China and takes Korea.Nov. 1, 1897: Juye Incident, armed men kill two Germans at missionary home in Shandong Province, northern China.Nov. 14, 1897: German Kaiser Wilhelm II sends a fleet to Shandong, urges them to take no prisoners like Attila and the Huns.1897-98: Drought followed by flooding strikes Shandong, causing widespread misery. The Boxers Rebel 1898: Young men in Shandong form Righteous Fist groups, practicing martial arts and traditional spiritualism.June 11-Sept. 21, 1898: Hundred Days Reform, Emperor Guangxu tries to quickly modernize China.Sept. 21, 1898: On the verge of handing over sovereignty to Japan, Guangxu is stopped and goes into internal exile. Empress Dowager Cixi rules in his name.Oct. 1898: Boxers attack Liyuantun villages Catholic church, converted from a temple to the Jade Emperor.Jan. 1900: Empress Dowager Cixi rescinds condemnation of Boxers, issues letter of support.Jan-May, 1900: Boxers storm through the countryside, burning churches, killing missionaries and converts.May 30, 1900: British Minister Claude MacDonald requests defense force for Beijing foreign legations; Chinese allow 400 troops from eight nations into capital. The Rebellion Reaches Beijing Jun 5, 1900: Boxers cut railroad line at Tianjin, isolating Beijing.June 13, 1900: First Boxer appears in Beijings Legation (diplomatic) Quarter.June 13, 1900: Pro-Boxer General Dong Fuxians troops kill Japanese diplomat Sugiyama Akira.June 14, 1900: German Minister Clemens von Ketteler arrests and summarily executes a young boy he suspects of being a Boxer.June 14, 1900: Thousands of angry Boxers storm Beijing and burn Christian churches in response to boys murder.June 16, 1900: Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu hold council meeting, decide to fully support Boxers.June 19, 1900: Qing government sends messengers to offer foreign legation members safe passage out of Beijing; instead, the foreigners shoot the messengers dead.June 20, 1900: Manchu Bannerman Captain En Hai kills Minister von Ketteler in a melee to avenge the murdered Boxer boy. Siege of the Legations June 20-Aug. 14, 1900: Boxers and Chinese Imperial Army besiege legations sheltering 473 foreign civilians, 400 foreign soldiers, and approximately 3,000 Chinese Christians.June 21, 1900: Empress Dowager Cixi declares war against the foreign powers.June 22-23, 1900: Chinese set fire to parts of Legation district; priceless Hanlin Academy library burns.June 30, 1900: Chinese force Germans from a position atop Tartar Wall overlooking legations, but Americans hold the position.July 3, 1900: 56 US, British and Russian soldiers on Tartar Wall launch a 2 am a surprise attack, kill 20 Chinese soldiers, and drive survivors from the wall.July 9, 1900: Outside of Beijing; Shanxi Province governor executes 44 missionary families (men, women, and children) after offering them asylum at Taiyuan. Victims of Taiyuan Massacre become martyrs in eyes of Chinese Christians.July 13-14, 1900: Also 120 km (75 miles) outside Beijing, Battle of Tientsin (Tianjin); Eight-Nations relief force besieges Boxer-h eld city, 550 Boxers and 250 foreigners killed. Foreign troops (especially Germans and Russians) rampage through city afterward, looting, raping and killing civilians, while Japanese and Americans try to restrain them. July 13, 1900: In Beijing, Chinese set off a mine under French Legation, force French and Austrians to shelter in British compound.July 13, 1900: Advancing Chinese drive Japanese and Italian troops to precarious last defense line at Prince Sus palace.July 16, 1900: Australian journalist George Morrison injured and British Captain Strouts killed by Chinese snipers.July 16, 1900: London Daily Mail publishes aÃ report that all legation besieged had been massacred, including mercy killing of women and children, Russians boiled to death in oil, etc. The story was false, fabricated by a reporter in Shanghai.July 17, 1900: Eight-Nations relief force lands on the coast, begins the march to BeijingJuly 17, 1900: Qing government declares a cease-fire on legations.August 13, 1900: Chinese end cease-fire, bombard legations as foreign rescue force approaches capital.August 14, 1900: Relief force lifts the siege on legations, forgets to relieve besieged Catholic North Cathedral until August 16.A ugust 15, 1900: Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu escape Forbidden City dressed as peasants, go on inspection tour to Ã¢â¬â¹theÃ ancient capital of Xian (formerly Changan) in Shaanxi Province. Aftermath Sept. 7, 1900: Qing officials sign Boxer Protocol, agree to pay huge war reparations over 40 years.Sept. 21, 1900: Russian troops seize Jilin and occupy Manchuria, moves that will spark 1904-05 Russo-Japanese WarÃ¢â¬â¹.Jan. 1902: Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu return to Beijing from Xian and resume control of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¹.1905: Empress Dowager Cixi abolishes imperial examination system for training bureaucrats in favor of western-style university system, part of an attempt at sweeping modernizationÃ¢â¬â¹.Nov. 14-15, 1908: Emperor Guangxu dies of arsenic poisoning, followed the next day by Empress Dowager CixiÃ¢â¬â¹.Feb. 12, 1912: Qing Dynasty falls to Sun Yat-sen; formal abdication by Last Emperor Puyi.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Retention Strategies for Nurse Retirees - Essay Example A more experienced nurse is in a better position to handle the needs of such patients. A multidisciplinary hospital like ours can derive benefits from the experience of such nurses. They can be used as senior educators, mentors or shapers of a new generation of outstanding nurses (RWJF, 2006). Thus, to utilize the services of the older nurses, the hospital must consider retraining for these nurses apart from discouraging policies that allow for an early exit from the profession. There should be no negative attitudes towards the aging workforce or their capabilities and lifelong learning should be encouraged. Mentoring is a concept that is used by all businesses and involves a mentor and a protÃ ©gÃ © engaged in a long-term relationship (NLN, 2006). Individuals who experience mentor-protÃ ©gÃ © relationship advance faster in their career and earn higher salaries at an early age. The new recruits at the hospital often feel a lack of support and recognition by colleagues but collaboration with others helps them to overcome this feeling of isolation. A personalized supportive relationship has positive outcomes for both the mentor and the mentee. The new faculty member learns community norms as well as the skills, strategies, and practices of teaching. If the role of a mentor is assigned to those that are about to retire, they would benefit from a mentoring relationship as they enter new roles in an academic setting. Through their experience, it would be easier for them to identify potential leaders in nursing and nursing education. They will be in a better position to cultivate a relatio nship in the best of interest of all concerned which includes the hospital, the mentor and the nurse herself. The mentor gets an opportunity to share her/his wisdom, knowledge and experience. The mentor also derives satisfaction from mentoring/guiding others in attaining self-clarity while also developing his/her own skills.Ã